Anxiety And Depressive Disorders Toward The Main Character In Paula Hawkins’ Novel The Girl On The Train


  • Armyati Siregar English Department, Faculty of Letters, Bosowa University
  • Dahlia D. Moelier English Department, Faculty of Letters, Bosowa University
  • Asyrafunnisa Asyrafunnisa English Department, Faculty of Letters, Bosowa University



Anxiety, Depression, Defense Mechanism, Psychological Approach


The purpose of the study was to categorize and explain about kinds and causes of anxiety, symptoms and causes of depressive disorder and what are the defense mechanism of main character to overcome her anxiety and depressive disorder in novel “The girl on the Train” by Paula Hawkins. The method used of this research is descriptive method with psychological approach, the writer understand the novel reading repeatedly, quoting and qualified the data who related with the research. The result of study showed that the main character had 3 kinds of anxiety and caused by environment, threat, frustration, gender, and fear. Rachel also had a symptoms of depression and caused by infertility, infidelity and divorced, loss a job and alcohol. To overcome her anxiety and depression Rachel used 3 kinds of defense mechanism such as repression, displacement, and rationalization. From explanation above it could be conclude that anxiety and depressive disorder could be happen together with the different main caused.


Abrams, Geoffrey Galt Harpham. (2009). A Glossary of Literary Terms: Ninth Edition. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Alwisol. (2009). Psikologi kepribadian edisi revisi. Malang: UMM Press.

C, Catherine. (2011). Depression: Clinical Guide. Rome: Kent Publishing Company.

Endaswara, Suwardi. (2011). Metodologi penelitian Sastra. Yogyakarta: CAPS.

Farokhah, A.F. (2015). Anxiety Suffered by Elizabeth Holland in Anna Gobbersen’s Splendor. Maulana Malic Ibrahim States Islamic University of Malang: Faculty of Humanities.

Freud, S. (2006). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Washington Square.Press, Inc.

Freud, S. (1960). The Letters of Sigmund Freud. Ernst L. Freud (Ed). New York: Basic Books.

Hawkins, Paula. (2015). The Girl on the Train. New York: Riverhead Books.

Hikmah, Iffah A. (2020). Anxiety Disorder Josh Malerman’s Birdbox. State University of Makassar: Faculty of Language and Literature.

Hilgard, Bower GH. (1975). Schemas Versus Mental Model in Human Memory. Chinester: John Wiley and Sons.

Johnson, D.A.W. (2018). The Significance of depression in the prediction of relapse in chronic schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 152(3), 320-323.

Kurniawan, M.H. (2017). Maleficent’ Depression in Change of Personality: A Psychoanalytic Study on the Curse of Maleficent Novel. Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta: Department of English Education.

Lumongga, Namora. (2016). Depresi Tinjauan Psikologis. Jakarta: Kencana.




How to Cite

Siregar, A., Moelier, D. D. ., & Asyrafunnisa, A. (2022). Anxiety And Depressive Disorders Toward The Main Character In Paula Hawkins’ Novel The Girl On The Train. Humaniora: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Education, 2(1), 01–08.